• Dyslexia is a specific learning disorder that is neurobiological in origin. It primarily affects decoding and word recognition, spelling, and reading fluency. It can also impact reading comprehension, writing, and even speaking
  • Dyslexia is due to differences in the way the brain processes information
  • It is very common (recent research suggests up to 20% of individuals have dyslexia) yet very individualized, meaning no two people with dyslexia will have the same exact difficulties
  • Dyslexia affects individuals throughout their lives; however, the signs often differ based on stage of life. Warning signs by age:


Early characteristics (Pre-K and K):

  • Delayed speech (i.e., often don’t start talking until two years or older)
  • Trouble identifying words that rhyme
  • Mixes up sounds in words (aminal for animal)
  • Struggles with following directions
  • Confusion with direction words (before/after; left/right)
  • Difficulty learning letter names and remembering the sounds they make (knowing that b makes the ‘buh’ sound)
  • Family history of dyslexia


Elementary School:

  • Letter or number reversals (b, d, p, q) past the end of first grade
  • Slow, choppy, inaccurate reading
    • Guesses words based on first or last letter
    • Skips or misreads small function words
    • Ignores suffixes
    • No strategy to sound out unknown words
    • May insert, omit, transpose, or confuse letters or sounds
  • Can’t remember sight words
  • Poor spelling
  • Trouble with math (multiplication tables, directionality, sequences of steps)
  • Trouble hearing individual sounds in words and/or blending sounds together
  • Avoids reading
  • Takes a very long time to complete reading assignments
  • Listening comprehension is better than reading comprehension


Middle to High School:

All of the above symptoms plus:

  • Limited vocabulary (usually due to less exposure to print)
  • Poor written expression
  • Difficulty with foreign language
  • Trouble reading charts and graphs


Early identification is critical! The earlier you can identify a problem, the sooner you are able to remediate and get your child back on track (up to grade level and prevent any negative impact on their self-confidence and love of learning)


If you think your child may have a learning disability, do not wait! Schedule a consultation to discuss your concerns and determine if testing is warranted.

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